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Logan Jones
Logan Jones

The United Nations Security Council In The Age Of Human Rights [CRACKED]


The UN Human Rights Office and the mechanisms we support work on a wide range of human rights topics. Learn more about each topic, see who's involved, and find the latest news, reports, events and more.




The United Nations Security Council in the Age of Human Rights



Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,


Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,


Proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.


Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.


OHCHR has organized expert consultations and published reports to explore the challenges that the right to privacy and other human rights face in the digital age, as requested by relevant resolutions by the General Assembly and the Human Rights Council.


This report focuses on the multifaceted impacts of the steadily growing use of artificial intelligence (AI) on the enjoyment of the right to privacy and associated rights. It stresses the urgent need for a moratorium on the sale and use of AI systems that pose a serious risk to human rights until adequate safeguards are put in place. It also calls for AI applications that cannot be used in compliance with international human rights law to be banned.


Among other aspects, this report discusses the human rights impacts of various surveillance practices and calls for a moratorium on the use of facial recognition technology in the context of peaceful assemblies.


Doha (12 November 2020), the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the negative impact of unilateral coercive measures on the enjoyment of human rights, Ms. Alena Douhan, visited Qatar from 1 to 12 November 2020. She thanks the Government of Qatar for enabling and supporting her visit to the country. The purpose of the visit was to assess the impact of unilateral sanctions imposed by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, the Kingdom of Bahrain and the Arab Republic of Egypt on the enjoyment of human rights by people living in Qatar, people living in the four countries imposing sanctions and any other affected people.


Furthermore, the Special Rapporteur reminds that international disputes shall be settled with the use of political and legal means in full compliance with the rule of law, and with due account for humanitarian concerns. Measures directly affecting fundamental human rights shall not be used as the means of influencing the Government. All states involved shall refrain from any action which might aggravate or extend the conflict between the parties.


Qatar is well-known for setting examples pioneering of the promotion of freedom of expression in the region. In this context, the Special Rapporteur expresses her concern that the demand to shut down Qatari news outlets, including Al Jazeera, is contrary to the international human rights obligations which are legally binding for all five countries and clearly undermines freedom of expression, creating a chilling effect that stifles civil society as well as provokes uncertainty and fear among writers and journalists. Such demands are a priori unacceptable and contrary to international human rights law.


The Special Rapporteur calls on the Four States to guarantee freedom of opinion and expression by annulling all Qatar sympathy laws, to take all necessary legislative and organizational measures to guarantee that activities under their jurisdiction and control are taken without any discrimination, to not initiate hatred towards people living in Qatar; and to drop all cases related to the application of the Qatar sympathy laws to guarantee that no discrimination is applied.The Special Rapporteur echoes the calls of the UN Special Procedures mandate holders and UN treaty bodies to the Four States to review the definition of terrorism and terrorism financing in their laws and bring it into line with international human rights norms, and to refrain from using anti-terrorism and other forms of national security legislation to stifle peaceful and non-violent activities through the designation of people, journalists and NGOs, including Qatar Charity, as well as others not included in the UN Security Council lists. The designation of people and companies as being involved in terrorist activity can only be done bona fidae and based on clear standards with due account for fair trial and judicial guarantees under the control of the UN Security Council.


In accordance with customary norms of international law, all states are obliged to guarantee that activities under their jurisdiction or control in any area, including cyber space, do not affect the rights of other states and their nationals and residents. The Special Rapporteur thus urges the Four States to guarantee that no discrimination is applied towards people living in Qatar; that sport, cultural and academic events are used to enhance cooperation and development of people without any discrimination; and that any form of incitement to hatred is addressed, discontinued and prosecuted as required by international human rights law, article 20 of the ICCPR.


While recognising that Hajj and Umrah are constituting an inalienable pillar of the exercise of freedom of conscience of any Muslim, the Special Rapporteur calls on the State of Qatar and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to negotiate and conclude in good faith and without any discrimination protocols between the Ministry of Endowments and Islamic Affairs in the State of Qatar and the Ministry of Hajj and Umrah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia providing for quotas, local contractors, airports of arrival, the possibility of land crossing points and other necessary elements as is done with other countries.Finally, the Special Rapporteur would like to call to on all parties to defuse tension and tackle together the seriousness or severity of hate speech that may undermine traditional coherence and historical peaceful co-existence of people living in all five countries through full respect of fundamental human rights standards protecting free speech and expression, as well as six criteria and indicators derived from the Rabat Plan of Action.


Freedom of expression is the cornerstone of democracy, which allows individuals and groups to enjoy several other human rights and freedoms. The mandate of the Special Rapporteur was created by the Human Rights Council to protect and promote freedom of opinion and expression, offline and online, in light of international human rights law and standards.


Noting that while concerns about public security may justify the gathering and protection of certain sensitive information, the text states that governments must ensure full compliance with their obligations under international human rights law. It calls on States to establish or maintain existing independent, effective domestic oversight capable of ensuring transparency, as appropriate, and accountability for surveillance and/or interception of communications and the collection of personal data.


Earlier in the year, Ms. Pillay spotlighted the right to privacy, using the case of United States citizen Edward Snowden to illustrate the urgent need to protect individuals who reveal human rights violations.


The UN Security Council in the 21st Century, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2015 _UN_Security_Council_in_the_21st_Century The UN Security Council in the Age of Human Rights, Cambridge University Press, 2014 www.cambridge.org/fr/academic/subjects/law/public-international-law/united-nations-security-council-age-human-rights


The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 and committed to maintaining international peace and security; developing friendly relations among nations; promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights.


The great struggles of the twentieth century between liberty and totalitarianism ended with adecisive victory for the forces of freedom—and a single sustainable model for national success:freedom, democracy, and free enterprise. In the twenty-first century, only nations that share acommitment to protecting basic human rights and guaranteeing political and economicfreedom will be able to unleash the potential of their people and assure their future prosperity.People everywhere want to be able to speak freely; choose who will govern them; worship as theyplease; educate their children—male and female; own property; and enjoy the benefits of theirlabor. These values of freedom are right and true for every person, in every society—and theduty of protecting these values against their enemies is the common calling of freedom-lovingpeople across the globe and across the ages.Today, the United States enjoys a position of unparalleled military strength and great economicand political influence. In keeping with our heritage and principles, we do not use our strengthto press for unilateral advantage.We seek instead to create a balance of power that favors humanfreedom: conditions in which all nations and all societies can choose for themselves the rewardsand challenges of political and economic liberty. In a world that is safe, people will be able tomake their own lives better.We will defend the peace by fighting terrorists and tyrants.We willpreserve the peace by building good relations among the great powers. We will extend the peaceby encouraging free and open societies on every continent.Defending our Nation against its enemies is the first and fundamental commitment of theFederal Government. Today, that task has changed dramatically. Enemies in the past neededgreat armies and great industrial capabilities to endanger America. Now, shadowy networks ofindividuals can bring great chaos and suffering to our shores for less than it costs to purchasea single tank. Terrorists are organized to penetrate open societies and to turn the power ofmodern technologies against us.To defeat this threat we must make use of every tool in our arsenal—military power, betterhomeland defenses, law enforcement, intelligence, and vigorous efforts to cut off terroristfinancing. The war against terrorists of global reach is a global enterprise of uncertain duration.America will help nations that need our assistance in combating terror. And America will holdto account nations that are compromised by terror, including those who harbor terrorists—because the allies of terror are the enemies of civilization. The United States and countriescooperating with us must not allow the terrorists to develop new home bases. Together, we willseek to deny them sanctuary at every turn.The gravest danger our Nation faces lies at the crossroads of radicalism and technology. Ourenemies have openly declared that they are seeking weapons of mass destruction, and evidenceindicates that they are doing so with determination. The United States will not allow theseefforts to succeed.We will build defenses against ballistic missiles and other means of delivery.We will cooperate with other nations to deny, contain, and curtail our enemies’ efforts to acquiredangerous technologies. And, as a matter of common sense and self-defense, America will actagainst such emerging threats before they are fully formed.We cannot defend America and ourfriends by hoping for the best. So we must be prepared to defeat our enemies’ plans, using thebest intelligence and proceeding with deliberation. History will judge harshly those who saw thiscoming danger but failed to act. In the new world we have entered, the only path to peace andsecurity is the path of action.As we defend the peace, we will also take advantage of an historic opportunity to preserve thepeace. Today, the international community has the best chance since the rise of the nation-statein the seventeenth century to build a world where great powers compete in peace instead ofcontinually prepare for war. Today, the world’s great powers find ourselves on the same side—united by common dangers of terrorist violence and chaos. The United States will build onthese common interests to promote global security.We are also increasingly united by commonvalues. Russia is in the midst of a hopeful transition, reaching for its democratic future and apartner in the war on terror. Chinese leaders are discovering that economic freedom is the onlysource of national wealth. In time, they will find that social and political freedom is the onlysource of national greatness. America will encourage the advancement of democracy andeconomic openness in both nations, because these are the best foundations for domestic stabilityand international order.We will strongly resist aggression from other great powers—even as wewelcome their peaceful pursuit of prosperity, trade, and cultural advancement.Finally, the United States will use this moment of opportunity to extend the benefits of freedomacross the globe.We will actively work to bring the hope of democracy, development, freemarkets, and free trade to every corner of the world. The events of September 11, 2001, taughtus that weak states, like Afghanistan, can pose as great a danger to our national interests asstrong states. Poverty does not make poor people into terrorists and murderers. Yet poverty,weak institutions, and corruption can make weak states vulnerable to terrorist networks anddrug cartels within their borders.The United States will stand beside any nation determined to build a better future by seekingthe rewards of liberty for its people. Free trade and free markets have proven their ability to liftwhole societies out of poverty—so the United States will work with individual nations, entireregions, and the entire global trading community to build a world that trades in freedom andtherefore grows in prosperity. The United States will deliver greater development assistancethrough the New Millennium Challenge Account to nations that govern justly, invest in theirpeople, and encourage economic freedom.We will also continue to lead the world in efforts toreduce the terrible toll of HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases.In building a balance of power that favors freedom, the United States is guided by the convictionthat all nations have important responsibilities. Nations that enjoy freedom must actively fightterror. Nations that depend on international stability must help prevent the spread of weaponsof mass destruction. Nations that seek international aid must govern themselves wisely, so thataid is well spent. For freedom to thrive, accountability must be expected and required.We are also guided by the conviction that no nation can build a safer, better world alone.Alliances and multilateral institutions can multiply the strength of freedom-loving nations.The United States is committed to lasting institutions like the United Nations, the World TradeOrganization, the Organization of American States, and NATO as well as other long-standingalliances. Coalitions of the willing can augment these permanent institutions. In all cases,international obligations are to be taken seriously. They are not to be undertaken symbolicallyto rally support for an ideal without furthering its attainment.Freedom is the non-negotiable demand of human dignity; the birthright of every person—inevery civilization. Throughout history, freedom has been threatened by war and terror; it hasbeen challenged by the clashing wills of powerful states and the evil designs of tyrants; and ithas been tested by widespread poverty and disease. Today, humanity holds in its hands theopportunity to further freedom’s triumph over all these foes. The United States welcomes ourresponsibility to lead in this great mission.George W. BushTHE WHITE HOUSE,September 17, 2002


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