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Diego Riccioly
Diego Riccioly

The Brain Story: A Framework for Building Brains and Strengthening Communities

Brain Story: How Experiences Shape Our Brains and Our Lives

Have you ever wondered how your brain works? How it develops from birth to adulthood? How it influences your health, your behaviour, your relationships, and your happiness? If you have, then you are not alone. Many people are curious about the science of brain development and its implications for their lives. In this article, we will explore the Brain Story, a narrative that explains how experiences shape our brains and our lives.


What is the Brain Story?

The Brain Story is a story about how experiences shape our brains. As such, it is also a story about human relationships, because we depend on those around us for the experiences that build our brain architecture. The Brain Story synthesizes decades of research from neuroscience, psychology, medicine, and other fields, and reflects a body of knowledge that experts agree is useful for policy-makers and citizens to understand.

brain story

Why is the Brain Story important?

The Brain Story is important because it reveals how lifelong health is determined by more than just our genes. It shows how early experiences, especially in the first years of life and at other sensitive periods of development, change the brain in ways that increase or decrease risk for later physical and mental illness, including addiction. It also shows how resilience can buffer the effects of toxic stress and how we can foster resilience in ourselves and others. By understanding the Brain Story, we can make informed decisions that support healthy brain development for ourselves, our families, our communities, and our society.

The Core Story of Brain Development

Brain Architecture

How brains are built by genes and experiences

Brains aren't just born. They're also built. Although genes play a role in how our brains develop, recent science shows how life experiences, in the first years of our lives and at other sensitive periods of development, change the architecture of the developing brainfor better or for worse.

The brain is composed of billions of neurons, or nerve cells, that communicate with each other through synapses, or connections. Synapses are formed by a process called synaptogenesis, which occurs most rapidly in early childhood. The more a synapse is used, the stronger it becomes. The less it is used, the weaker it becomes. This process is called synaptic pruning, which eliminates unused or weak synapses and makes room for new ones.

The quality and quantity of experiences that a child has in early life influence how synapses are formed and pruned. Positive experiences, such as nurturing care, stimulating play, and rich learning opportunities, promote healthy brain development. Negative experiences, such as abuse, neglect, or exposure to violence, impair brain development. The effects of these experiences are cumulative and long-lasting.

How brains are built by serve and return interactions

Brains are built by infant-caregiver interaction. Positive interactions, called serve and return interactions by scientists, involve back and forth play between children and caregivers. These experiences build strong brain architecture and strong emotional bonds. These experiences also help children develop social and emotional skills, such as empathy, self-regulation, and communication.

Negative interactions, such as harsh or inconsistent care, lack of attention, or emotional unavailability, disrupt healthy brain development and weaken emotional bonds. These experiences also impair children's social and emotional skills, such as trust, self-esteem, and cooperation.

The quality and quantity of serve and return interactions that a child has in early life influence how the brain develops in areas that are critical for learning, memory, and emotion. These areas include the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala.

Types of Stress Response

How stress affects the brain and the body

Stress is a normal and necessary part of life. It helps us cope with challenges, threats, and changes. However, not all stress is the same. There are different types of stress response that have different effects on the brain and the body.

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The stress response is a biological reaction that involves the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The HPA axis releases hormones such as cortisol, which regulate metabolism, immune function, and inflammation. The SNS releases neurotransmitters such as adrenaline, which increase heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration.

The stress response is adaptive and beneficial when it is short-lived and moderate. It helps us mobilize energy, focus attention, and respond effectively to challenges. However, the stress response is maladaptive and harmful when it is prolonged or severe. It can disrupt brain development, impair immune function, increase inflammation, and increase the risk of chronic diseases.

How different types of stress impact brain development

Scientists have identified three types of stress response that have different impacts on brain development: positive stress, tolerable stress, and toxic stress.

Positive stress is a mild or brief increase in stress that is normal and expected in everyday life. Examples of positive stress include meeting new people, taking a test, or trying a new activity. Positive stress can enhance brain development by stimulating learning and growth.

Tolerable stress is a moderate or severe increase in stress that is limited in time and buffered by supportive relationships. Examples of tolerable stress include losing a loved one, experiencing a natural disaster, or undergoing a medical procedure. Tolerable stress can be overcome without lasting damage to brain development if there are caring adults who provide protection, comfort, and reassurance.

Toxic stress is a strong or prolonged increase in stress that is not buffered by supportive relationships. Examples of toxic stress include abuse, neglect, violence, poverty, or parental substance abuse. Toxic stress can damage brain development by disrupting the formation of synapses, impairing the growth of neural pathways, and altering the expression of genes.


How resilience can buffer the effects of toxic stress

Resilience is the ability to cope with adversity and bounce back from challenges. Resilience is not a fixed trait that some people have and others don't. Resilience is a dynamic process that can be learned and strengthened throughout life.

Resilience can buffer the effects of toxic stress by reducing the activation of the HPA axis and the SNS, enhancing the functioning of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala, Story on outcomes

The Brain Story can also inform how we measure the impact of policies and practices that aim to support healthy brain development and prevent or reduce the effects of toxic stress. By using the Brain Story as a framework, we can identify indicators and outcomes that reflect the core concepts of brain architecture, stress response, and resilience.

Some examples of indicators and outcomes that are aligned with the Brain Story are:

  • Child development: cognitive, language, social, emotional, and physical skills and milestones.

  • Child health: birth weight, immunization, chronic conditions, mental health, and substance use.

  • Child well-being: safety, stability, attachment, self-regulation, and self-esteem.

  • Family functioning: parenting quality, family stress, family violence, and family support.

  • Social determinants of health: income, education, employment, housing, and community resources.

How the Brain Story can empower individuals and communities

How to learn more about the Brain Story through online courses and resources

The Brai


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