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Diego Riccioly
Diego Riccioly

The Brain Story: A Framework for Building Brains and Strengthening Communities

Brain Story: How Experiences Shape Our Brains and Our Lives

Have you ever wondered how your brain works? How it develops from birth to adulthood? How it influences your health, your behaviour, your relationships, and your happiness? If you have, then you are not alone. Many people are curious about the science of brain development and its implications for their lives. In this article, we will explore the Brain Story, a narrative that explains how experiences shape our brains and our lives.


What is the Brain Story?

The Brain Story is a story about how experiences shape our brains. As such, it is also a story about human relationships, because we depend on those around us for the experiences that build our brain architecture. The Brain Story synthesizes decades of research from neuroscience, psychology, medicine, and other fields, and reflects a body of knowledge that experts agree is useful for policy-makers and citizens to understand.

brain story

Why is the Brain Story important?

The Brain Story is important because it reveals how lifelong health is determined by more than just our genes. It shows how early experiences, especially in the first years of life and at other sensitive periods of development, change the brain in ways that increase or decrease risk for later physical and mental illness, including addiction. It also shows how resilience can buffer the effects of toxic stress and how we can foster resilience in ourselves and others. By understanding the Brain Story, we can make informed decisions that support healthy brain development for ourselves, our families, our communities, and our society.

The Core Story of Brain Development

Brain Architecture

How brains are built by genes and experiences

Brains aren't just born. They're also built. Although genes play a role in how our brains develop, recent science shows how life experiences, in the first years of our lives and at other sensitive periods of development, change the architecture of the developing brainfor better or for worse.

The brain is composed of billions of neurons, or nerve cells, that communicate with each other through synapses, or connections. Synapses are formed by a process called synaptogenesis, which occurs most rapidly in early childhood. The more a synapse is used, the stronger it becomes. The less it is used, the weaker it becomes. This process is called synaptic pruning, which eliminates unused or weak synapses and makes room for new ones.

The quality and quantity of experiences that a child has in early life influence how synapses are formed and pruned. Positive experiences, such as nurturing care, stimulating play, and rich learning opportunities, promote healthy brain development. Negative experiences, such as abuse, neglect, or exposure to violence, impair brain development. The effects of these experiences are cumulative and long-lasting.

How brains are built by serve and return interactions

Brains are built by infant-caregiver interaction. Positive interactions, called serve and return interactions by scientists, involve back and forth play between children and caregivers. These experiences build strong brain architecture and strong emotional bonds. These experiences also help children develop social and emotional skills, such as empathy, self-regulation, and communication.

Negative interactions, such as harsh or inconsistent care, lack of attention, or emotional unavailability, disrupt healthy brain development and weaken emotional bonds. These experiences also impair children's social and emotional skills, such as trust, self-esteem, and cooperation.

The quality and quantity of serve and return interactions that a child has in early life influence how the brain develops in areas that are critical for learning, memory, and emotion. These areas include the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala.

Types of Stress Response

How stress affects the brain and the body

Stress is a normal and necessary part of life. It helps us cope with challenges, threats, and changes. However, not all stress is the same. There are different types of stress response that have different effects on the brain and the body.

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